An Interpretation of The Call of the Wild from the Perspective of Ecocriticism从生态批评角度解读《野性的呼唤》文献综述

 2021-10-21 05:10


1.Introduction1.1 Research backgroundJack London (1876-1916) is a famous American naturalist and realist writer in the 20th century, who was born into a bankrupt farmer's family. Because of his poverty, he worked as a child laborer, stevedore and sailor, and then wandered around the United States. Poor and joyless childhood made Jack London mature early. Jack London has had to work and read since he was 10. Whenever possible, he will spend his time reading. He loves reading, and he read as many novels and other books as he can. Jack London entered the University of California, Berkeley at the age of 21 in 1897, but later dropped out of Berkeley due to a lack of funds. The rough life experience and the desire for knowledge inspired his literary creation and became the source of his creation.In Jack London's works, we often feel the heroism complex. We can feel his worship of life itself and his pursuit of primitive form and spiritual freedom for the meaning of life and existence. In Jack London's works, the protagonist and the harsh wasteland are integrated. Life here tends to take on a primitive form, releasing a desire contrary to the vulgar world. It is a kind of arduous, jumping and even violent anger. There is heroism in the treatment of death(Jiao, 2008). The call of the wild is a classic work of Jack London. Buck is a dog of judge Miller's family. He has been living in a warm valley in Southern California. Later, it was sold to the cold, remote and gold rich Alaska in the north of the United States, and became a sled dog. In this work, a dog's experience is used to show that the dog in the civilized world returns to barbarism under the pressure of its master. It is about the dog, which also reflects the human world(Wu, 2010,12). The story is inspired by a trip by Jack London to Dawson. In 1897, Jack London left San Francisco for a trip to the Stewart river via the Dale beach. In the next few years, Jack London crossed the chelcot channel, searched for gold in the Henderson River, and built a boat in the man lake of Ling, by which he crossed the man lake, Beina lake, tiger Fairy Lake, swamp lake, 50 mile lake of Ling, and finally reached Dawson(Cai, 2015). 1.2 Need for the studyThe ecological criticism in the call of the wild should arouse people's thinking. In this book, the author criticizes human's crazy exploitation and destruction of nature for one's own selfish desire as well as human's abuse and enslavement of animals, reflecting the author's concern for nature and animals. Studying the ecological thoughts in this book is still of great significance to the world today. By describing the relationship between Buck and different owners, this paper reveals the principle of caring for nature, caring for animals and harmoniously living with nature. 2.Literature review2.1 EcocriticismEcological criticism is a critical wave rising in America and Europe in the 1970s. It studies the relationship between civilization and nature through literary texts. It not only saves the nature as the living environment of human beings, but also human nature, so as to solve the problem of human alienation. Its ultimate concern is to rebuild a new spiritual and material home of the unity of man and nature.2.1.1 Formation and developmentEcocriticism, as a literary criticism, originated in the United States in the 1970s. In 1972, the concept of "literary ecology" first appeared in the works of Joseph W. Meeker(1972), an American scholar. It mainly discusses the revelation of literature to "the relationship between human beings and other species". It is necessary to carefully examine and explore the influence of literature on human behavior and natural environment. In 1978, William Rueckert(1978) first used the word "ecological criticism", advocated "combining literature and ecology", stressed that critics "must have an ecological vision", and should "build an ecological poetics system".2.1.2 Main characteristicsThe "eco" of ecocriticism refers to the thought of ecologism, and its core thought is ecological holism. The main ideological feature of ecological criticism is ecological holism. Ecocriticism is a literary criticism guided by ecological holism. The core idea of ecological holism is to regard the overall interests of the ecosystem as the highest value rather than the interests of mankind, and to regard maintaining and protecting the integrity, harmony, stability, balance and sustainability of the ecosystem as the fundamental yardstick to measure all things, and as the judgment of human life style, scientific and technological progress, economic growth and social development(Wang,2007).2.2 Previous study of The call of the wild abroad and at homeThe domestic research on the call of the wild mainly includes the following aspects:Studying the artistic image of Buck. Tan Yanping(2006), in her dissertation On the artistic image of Buck in the call of the wilderness, discusses the unity of dog nature and human nature by analyzing the image of the hero Buck.Analyzing the language features of the call of the wild and its translation. In the dissertation An Ecological Discourse Analysis of Jack London's call to the wild from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics, Wang Qichen (2019), from the perspective of transitive structure, ergative structure and grammatical metaphor in systemic functional linguistics, makes an ecological discourse analysis of the call of the wild, which reveals that while criticizing the destruction of ecological environment by human beings, the author is also hard to break through the ideology of anthropocentrism in the process of discourse construction. Referring to Professor Xie Tianzhen's and Professor He Shaobin's stages of modern Chinese translation history, Wang Ziyu(2019) in her dissertation A Study of The Translator抯 Adaptation and Selection: Evidence from Seven Chinese Versions of The Call of the Wild selects seven translations from four periods and three places on both sides of the Straits. With the help of corpus software, she makes quantitative analysis on the translation features of the translations, and explores the adaptation and selection of translators in different regions and times. A comparative analysis of the call of the wild and some other literary works. In the dissertation An interpretation of The Call of the Wild and Kekexili Wolf from the Perspective of Ecocriticism, Wang Manhua(2016), analyzes the ecologism through the comparative study of the two novels.ReferencesAuerbach, J., 敦的英雄主义情结,《西北大学学报(哲学社会科学版)》,4:174-176。










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