1. Introduction Jerome David "J. D." Salinger (January 1, 1919 January 27, 2010) was an American writer who won acclaim early in life. He led a very private life for more than a half-century. He published his final original work in 1965 and gave his last interview in 1980. Salinger was raised in Manhattan and began writing short stories while in secondary school. Several were published in Story magazine in the early 1940s before he began serving in World War II. In 1948, his critically acclaimed story "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" appeared in The New York magazine, which became home to much of his later work. In 1951, his novel The Catcher in the Rye was an immediate popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential, especially among adolescent readers. The novel remains widely read and controversial. The catcher in the rye, vividly shows us an imagine of a teenage after Second World War. In this novel, the author portrayed a successful image of a different teenage, Amanda Louise Holden, who hated the adult hypocrisy world. He wants to escape from the reality but the side of his weakness decides that he is doomed to failure. Different from other novels, the author presents an anti-hero role who is dissatisfied with reality, hating material pursuit and seeking the spiritual realm. Finally, he cant change the reality but to want to be a catcher in the rye to protected the children from the influence of the adult world. Through the person Holden, the novel expresses the contradiction between the American material life and the lack of spiritual life after the Second World War. A controversial novel originally published for adults, it has since become popular with adolescent readers for its themes of teenage angst and alienation. It has been translated into almost all of the world's major languages. Around 250,000 copies are sold each year with total sales of more than 65 million books. The novel's protagonist Holden Caulfield has become an icon for teenage rebellion. The novel also deals with complex issues of identity, belonging, loss, connection, and alienation.
2. Literature reviewThe Catcher in the Rye, which is sometimes called Modern Classicof American literature in the 20th century, renders a panoramic picture of an adolescents world, in which J.D.Salinger delicately traces Holdens odyssey from a physically and spiritually embittered adolescent through the psychologically full-fledged adulthood to his eventual initiation into the society. Since its publication, The Catcher in the Rye has caught a lot of critical attention, varying from traditional criticism to various post-modernist views, and received diverse interpretations. Widespread successful criticism, together with some elements of protest, established the thirty-two-year-old novelists reputation. It is around the leading character Holden Caulfield that the most heated debates revolve, pitting the Holden lovers in one corner against the Holden haters in the other, due to Holden as one of the earliest anti-heroes in American literature.In the early years, The Catcher in the Rye attracted critics attention for its themes of teenage confusion, angst, sexuality, alienation, rebellion, growing up, etc. David L. Stevenson (1957) thought that the novel was Salingers most ambitious presentation of aspects of contemporary alienation. Arthur Heiserman and James E. Miller regarded the novel as a quest story. They argued, It is clear that J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye belongs to an ancient and honorable narrative tradition, perhaps the most profound in western fiction... It is, of course, the tradition of the Quest. Some critics also probed into the ending of the novel. Most considered The Catcher in the Rye to be a tragedy. John Aldrige (1956) wrote that in the end, Holden remained what he was in the beginningcynical, defiant, and blind. Some other critics adopted a more optimistic view of the conclusion. S. N. Behrman (1951) remarked, Holden knows that things wont remain the same; they are dissolving, and he cant allow himself to reconcile with it. Holden doesnt have the knowledge to trace his breakdown or the mental clarity to define it, for all he knows is that a large avalanche of disintegration is occurring around him. The Catcher in the Rye was not popular to most Chinese readers until in 1983 Shi Xianrongs revising and translating of the novel. Some scholars paid attention to the theme of growing up. Zhang Ye (2002) analyzed Holdens rebellion and final initiation maturity. Liu Dan (2006) analyzed Holdens initiation characteristics after his escape from the phony world. Huang Yanxin (2003) concentrated on the theme of rebellion by examining the characters and words of the novel. Sun Weihong (2004) analyzed Holdens rebellion against the mainstream culture and claimed Holdens rebellion is his way of escape. After making comprehensive comments on the language, character descriptions and the historical context of this novel, Li Zheng rong (1997) thought that a hypocritical, degenerated and cruel American society was exposed and criticized by the author. Zhang Xiaoyu (2003) pointed out that the contents of this book were a reflection of the times. Zhang Jieming (2002) criticized the phony, hypocritical, degrading and depressing American society in his works.
Works CitedAlexander, Charlotte A. J.D.Salinger's the Catcher inthe Rye. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishing House, 1997.Alexander, Paul. Biography of J.D. Salinger Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.Bing,Yuping.[丙渝萍],《美国成长小说研究》.北京：中国社会科学出版社，2004.Guo,Jia.[郭佳],《麦田里的守望者》研究综述. 太原大学学报, 2002,(1): 78-80.Li,Jing.[李晶],一个流浪少年的内心世界 ---《麦田里的守望者》主人公辨析.四川大学学报, 1999,(2):114-115.Li,Zhengrong.[李征戎],逃逸与反叛 --- 评塞林格的《麦田里的守望者》.外国文学研究, 1997,(3):22-24.Shang, Xiaojin.[尚晓进],精神危机与自我救赎.英美文学研究论丛，2001,(2)：196209.Yang,Xiaoping.[杨小平],塞林格的语言 --- 评《麦田里的守望者》.邵阳学院学报,2002,(3):29-31.Yu,Jianhua.[虞建华],《20部美国小说名著评析》.上海：上海外语教育出版社，1999.Yuan,Xiaohong.[袁晓红],《麦田里的守望者》的叙事特征.湖南工业职业技术学院学报,2003,(4): 121-123.
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