乐活精神的跨文化研究 A cross-cultural study on LOHAS文献综述

 2021-09-26 11:09


文 献 综 述 乐活精神的跨文化研究 A Cross-cultural Study of LOHAS1.IntroductionLOHAS is an acronym for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability, a market segment focus on health and fitness, the environment, personal development, sustainable living and social justice. LOHAS builds on foundational work from the mid 1990s in the united States by sociologist Paul Ray, who undertook extensive research which found that nearly 25% of the U.S. population identified the concepts of health, sustainability and social justice as major elements forming their world view and how they chose to live their lives. Paul Ray (1998) called this group the Cultural Creative and described them as innovators and leaders of cultural change, voracious consumers of art and books and also major drivers of a type of consumption that demonstrated recognition of individual and community impact. However at the time of Ray's early work, there was little broad recognition of the true size and power of this cultural phenomenon as it was difficult to define from a market perspective and defined normal demographic stereotypes. In 1999, the term LOHAS was coined by Conscious Media, founders of the LOHAS Journal in an attempt to define the rapid emergence of a global trend to more conscious platforms of choice in a wide range of industries.LOHAS is a recognized market segment in the USA, Western Europe and Asian countries including Japan, Singapore and China. This study focuses on the values constituting a Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS)-oriented lifestyle. By comparing different culture backgrounds to explore their similarities and differences. The aim is to make more people learn about LOHAS, especially our Chinese, and hope they can lead a healthy and sustainable lifestyle. LOHAS consumers are the early adopters and influences of sustainability, because they are always on the lookout for new ways to lighten their figurative footprint. And, in fact, compared to other segments, they are less price sensitive, more eager from green products, more likely to be the first to try green products, and more likely to influence others. General Kofi A. Annan, former U.N. Secretary General said that we thrive and survive on the planet Earth as a single human family. And one of our main responsibilities is to leave to successor generations a sustainable future. So we should try our best to save our planet and family.1.1 Research backgroundResearchers have reported a range of sizes of the LOHAS market segment, for example, Worldwatch Institute reported that the LOHAS market segment in the year 2006 was estimated at $300 billion, approximately 30% of the U.S. consumer market; and a study by the Natural Marketing Institute showed that in 2007, 41 million or 13% of the Americans were included within the LOHAS demographic. In Japan roughly 17 million adults or 12% of the population are LOHAS consumers. The growth of organic and natural foods, complimentary medicine and personal development was viewed as the convergence of shifting consumer values based on sustainable, environmental and socially responsible platforms. LOHAS describes the marketplace for these products and services and the consumers that shop them. The existence of a common thread of values that is consistent in consumer behaviors across each of the defined marketplace segments allows for a targeted approach to attracting and retaining customers with a LOHAS lifestyle. Longitudinal research shows these values, rather than being fringe and marginalized, are increasingly becoming broad based and entrenched across a wide cross-section of the population, driving changes in consumer markets, politics and society. With LOHAS spreading across the globe recent years, LOHAS Journal thought it timely to reflect on what is driving the phenomenon globally, some of the key differences in interpretation across the world, and what binds LOHASandLOHASians together that where they are. Despite many similarities, key differences have emerged in the use of LOHAS between Western countries and countries of East Asia, including Japan, China and South Korea, where LOHAS is a booming consumer term. The emergences of LOHAS-branded foods and beverages, fashion labels and even LOHAS department stores heralds a new use of the LOHAS term as it crosses from business-speak into the consumer vocabulary.1.2 Need for the studyAlthough the LOHAS is an ethnic definition in America, at present, there are lots of reports about it all over the world, which is generally believed that all cultures and countries have LOHAS groups more or less. It is suitable for the world nowadays, and the people no matter in West or East should live in this kind of lifestyle step by step. LOHAS focuses on sustainable spirit, in China, we abide by sustainable development. As we all know, our environment is suffering from serious threats. The reason is that we burned too much coal and oil, and we wasted a huge amount of energy. Now we should learn from the West, begin to change our lifestyles so we can save our earth and ourselves. How do individuals become change-agents? As publishing executive Richard (2011) suggested in his last chapter, change begins with the individual in LOHAS, but what sort of individuals are we talking about? Where do they receive their vision for change? What motivates them? What sorts of actions do they take and where? The LOHAS discourse, particularly that occurring within the consumer oriented texts, tells us that each individual needs to pursue their bliss. This idea says that each of us has a unique and distinct path to follow toward ultimate self-fulfillment and happiness. Sam(2011), CEO of a chain of national LOHAS-related magazines, considered my question: did social and environmental change figure into the ideals of the health? Healing the natural world, society, and yourself are completely interrelated, he told. I dont believe you can heal yourself and do inner work without engaging in protection and healing of the planet and pursuing healing in the social and political realm, between people and nations. How are we to live? The question brings to mind both spiritual and lifestyle considerations, concerns that are merged in the LOHAS movement as a way to mobilize an answer to that pervasive question of the ages through the discursive construction of two concepts: healthrepresented as a state of balanceand sustainability, the acts and beliefs it takes to maintain that balance. Health serves as the representation of the sacred in LOHAS. It not only makes reference to the socially constructed and physically imperative needs of the self, but it also frames these as interdependent with the needs of our world.2.Literature reviewFrom organic produce and clothing to socially conscious investing and eco-tourism, the lifestyles of health and sustainability, or LOHAS, movement encompasses diverse products and practices intended to contribute to a more sustainable lifestyle for people and the planet. In The Gospel of Sustainability, Monica M. Emerich (2011)explores the contemporary spiritual expression of this green cultural shift at the confluence of the media and the market. This is the first book to qualitatively study the LOHAS marketplace and the development of a discourse of sustainability of the self and the social and natural worlds.Emerich draws on myriad sources related to the notions of mindful consumption found in the LOHAS marketplace, including not just products and services but marketing materials, events, lectures, regulatory policies, and conversations with leaders and consumers. These disparate texts, she argues, universally project a spiritual message about personal and planetary health that is in turn reforming capitalism by making consumers more conscious. In lucid and engaging prose rife with relevant contemporary examples and anecdotes about the LOHAS movement, Emerich traces the creative ways in which populations transfer ideas normally assigned to the sphere of religion to the materials and environments at hand, including to markets and the labor they perform. The result is a riveting discussion about the interlocking roles of media, marketplace, and sustainability. These ideas are also suitable for our society, and we should change our living ways. The first step is walking toward LOHAS.Only in this way, can we save our environment and ourselves.Joan Baez (2005), singer and activist, stood before the 2005 LOHAS Forum 9 audience. We are a greed society and the rich are going to have to give to the poor, she said. I believe you are all here to address this. This is community. With that, she deftly wove together the assortment of nonprofit workers, doctors, consultants, industrial powerhouses, yoga teachers, movie stars, recording artists, politicians, and publishers, interpreting them as a collective of people who shared deep convictions about the nature of capitalism as a contradictory system of power and conflict, of poverty and inequality, of environmental degradation. The publisher of The LOHAS Journal hoped to use the magazine, the conference, and the concept to create new arterial networks among disparate industries that would allow each to share knowledge and build the market for healthy and sustainable goods and services through partnership. In effect, the mission was to cohere a community or a collective around specific sets of values. Nan Feng (2009) ever said that, with a view of our Chinese traditional culture, the lifestyle of health and sustainability, whose ideas and proposals is a part of Chinese culture. Thus, LOHAS is regression of tradition in essence, and added with some other elements from the West and the modern societies, then it swift become a kind of cultural phenomenon.LOHAS has been all in fashion in Europe and America for many years, and the first country that begins to embrace it is Japan.Li Ling (2007) told that in her study, there are about 68 million Americans and 80 million Europeans, who have focused on LOHAS at that moment. In 2006, the first issue on LOHAS catching peoples eyes in Taiwan. And in the mainland areas, LOHAS is growing stronger and stronger. Everage (2002) told readers that how to understanding the LOHAS lifestyle, so in his way, we can continue to study it in details. Step by step, we will find the best lifestyle suitable to our Chinese. And in Understanding the LOHAS Consumer, French (2007) told us how to be the LOHAS consumer, which will help us do better in our lives. We can do more to protect our environment and ourselves. In The Rise of Ethical Consumerism, Roger (2007) talked about the trend of LOHAS. So I will explore the benefit of LOHAS from those resources, and make a cross-cultural study of LOHAS.3.MethodologyBefore I wrote this paper, Ive read some works on this subject both at home and abroad, which can be found in the library and on the Internet. And then Ill make a careful research into them by using comparison and analysis based on the material Ive collected. In this way, I intend to discuss how cultural differences influence the lifestyles choosing of Westerner and Chinese, analyze the reason for its existence and point out that it is necessary to change the lifestyles which most Chinese lead now. I will also provide abundant examples to support my arguments and make them easier to understand. With my hard working and my tutors kind and valuable help, Im confident that I can finish this paper with desire results.4.ConclusionLOHAS refers to conscious and mindful consumption for the health and sustainability of both oneself and the whole world. It consists of the concepts of organic food, eco-tourism, alternative energy, and so on.In resent years, the healthy and sustainable life, which attaches great importance, is being paid more and more attention by Western people. They have also been at the forefront of pressure for government and corporate action on climate change, protection of ecosystems and sustainable water resources. With the development of the world economy, our society has been deeply developed. The spiritual needs for human beings have been grown as well, so that people are increasingly concerning the harmony existence between themselves and the development of environment. In the context of globalization LOHAS group slowly begins to be on the rise in China as one kind of peculiar phenomenon and fashion. The LOHAS group lifestyle is of important realistic meaning to the construction of the contemporary concept of people lives change.Works cited:Emercd, M, 2011, The Gospel of Sustainability.Everage, L, 2002, Understanding the LOHAS lifestyle. Gourmet Retailer,23(10), 82-87.French, S, 2007, Understanding the LOHAS consumer: The rise of ethical consumerism.Paul H. Ray, 2000, The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World.Rogers, G, 2007, The LOHAS Journal, Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA.Richard, Sam, LOHAS 2011 Forum, 2011, LOHAS Journal.Li Ling [李琳],2007,乐活族的快乐生活,《中关村》第49期。

Nan Feng[南风],2009,走进中国的乐活现状,《HOTSPOT关注》第4期。

Outline1. Introduction 1.1 Research Background1.2 Significance of the Research1.3 Structure of the Thesis2. Literature Review2.1 Overview of LOHAS2.2 Previous Studies at Home and Abroad2.3 What We Learned from the Previous Studies3. A Cross-cultural Study of LOHAS3.1Comparison of the Different Lifestyles Between Western and Chinese 3.2The Reasons for Different Lifestyles: Culture, Economy, Religion, Tradition 3.3 The Tendency of LOHAS in China3.4 The Similarities Between LOHAS and Chinese Traditional Culture3.5 The Necessity and Obligation of being LOHAS4. How to be LOHAS and How to be Better4.1 The Elements and Expressions of LOHAS4.2 The Influence on Modern Society and Culture4.3 LOHAS Related Industries5. ConclusionReferences

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