Pip’s Self-salvation in Great Expectations《远大前程》中匹普的自我救赎文献综述

 2021-10-20 07:10


1. Introduction1.1 Research backgroundPsychoanalysis, founded by Freud, is a century old. Since its birth, psychoanalysis has been one of the most controversial cultural trends of thought. In the process of persistent disputes, some of the spirit of psychoanalysis has penetrated into almost all humanities and social sciences, affecting peoples thinking habits and life concepts. Psychoanalysis that Freud initiated has penetrated so deeply into culture that it is impossible to be separated from culture. We can find the major and most powerful ideas of the 20th century that have transformed the intellectual history of western civilization in Freuds works (Zhang, 2014). Even many western scholars call it the Columbus of the mind or the Darwin of the spirit (Wang Guo, 1998). Since the 20th century, the effective penetration of psychoanalysis in philosophy, aesthetics, literature, sociology, anthropology and other disciplines and its transformative impact has been beyond doubt (Lodge, 1987). The English edition of Freuds The Interpretation of Dreams, published in 1900, marked the maturation of the psychoanalysis. In 1914, Alfred Adler turned psychoanalysis from Freud's biology-oriented id to the social psychology. Psychoanalysis continues to develop in a sociocultural direction.The theory of personality structure is one of the most important aspects of psychoanalysis. In 1912, Carl Gustav Jung advocated dividing the structure of personality into three layers: consciousness, individual unconsciousness and collective unconsciousness. In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed and elaborated the theory of personality structure. In 1941, Erich Fromm proposed the social unconscious under the influence of Jung. In 1950, Erik H Erikson put forward the social psychological development theory of personality, dividing the psychological development into eight stages and pointing out the special social psychological tasks of each stage. He held that there is a special contradiction in every stage, and the smooth resolution of the contradiction is the premise of the healthy development of personality. Although each psychoanalytic psychologist puts forward different views, they all focus on the ego and develop the theory of personality structure. At the same time, psychoanalytic analysis is divided into two schools: The classical psychoanalytic school and the new psychoanalytic school. According to Yao (2000), the difference between the two lies in that the fact the former emphasizes the dynamic role of sexual instinct and the importance of individual spiritual activities, while the latter takes self-rational regulation as the core.Charles Dickens (1812-1870) was a legend in the English literary history as well as a great master of depicting British bourgeoisie bitterness, love and hatred while always sympathizing with the poor and the unfortunate. Pip is such a poor and unfortunate person in Dickens novel Great Expectations, which tells the story of the hero from losing his good nature to achieving self-salvation. This paper will use Freuds theory of personality structure to analyze his self-salvation.1.2 Literature reviewSince its publication hundreds of years ago, Great Expectations has been the object of scholars discussion. Among them, Sun (2007) makes an in-depth study on the theme of salvation, and spares a few pages analyzing Pip s self-salvation. Wang, Xv (2014) analyze Pip from the perspective of enlightenment, praising his kindness and naivety during childhood while criticizing his loss of kindness and good nature to embark on his great expectations. Luo (2016) discusses the causes and influences of Pips personality characteristics in aspects of living environment, character relationship, and social environment. Yu (2016) criticizes the fascination with the upper society from the perspective of egoism, and explores the humanistic error in this fascination. Gu (2014) describes that Pip turns into the self from the other, and his dream of being a gentleman is shattered due to the imperfection of his self. Zhou (2017) makes a general reference to the theme of self-salvation in his analysis of Dickens and biblical culture. Wang (2019) explores the process from Pips being good by nature to his loss of self from the perspective of psychological defense mechanism and psychodynamics. A few western scholars have studied Great Expectations from the perspective of self. For instance, Perera (2012) studies the liberation and salvation of the ordinary self-narrative and narrative fantasy in Great Expectations according to Darwins theory on evolution and biological determination. Jerome (2014) compares Great Expectations with Samuel Smiles' Self-Help to study how Pip finds himself when his great expectations suddenly collapse. He also emphasizes that people should acknowledge their shortcomings and evaluate their own value according to their actual situation. As to the problems in the previous studies on Great Expectations, on one hand, scholars do not spare many paragraphs discussing the theme of Pips self-salvation. On the other, there is no analysis of Pips self-salvation from the perspective of Freuds theory. Therefore, this paper will make use of Freuds theory of personality structure to explore how Pip is immersed in his id, how he struggles with his ego, and how he achieves self-salvation.1.3 Need of the studyFirst, the study can deepen readers in-depth understanding of characters, the poor peoples life under capitalism and Dickens criticism of the upper society. Second, it can provide a new perspective for future research into the self-salvation process of the protagonist Pip. Third, modern people can benefit a lot from Pips self-reflection and self-salvation. 2. Freuds theory of personality structure2.1 Development Freud (1900) believes that the theory of personality structure is made up of two layers, namely the unconscious and the unconscious, emphasizing that the psychological process of people is mainly unconscious, and the conscious is derived from the unconscious. Freud (1923) actually divides personality into three levels: unconscious, preconscious and conscious. The unconscious mind is his most discussed part, and at the heart of his early theory of personality structure, the id operates at an unconscious level that represents biological instincts. The ego develops from the id and functions in the preconscious mind. The ego is influenced by sensory system to change the id. It is both the representative of external reality and the executor of the id. The superego, a symbol of the inner world, is present in the conscious. 2.2 Classification Freud (1923) proposes in The Id and the Ego a new theory of personality structure, that is, the personality is regarded as a whole, which includes three parts: the id, the ego and the superego. Freud (1923/2010) defines the id as the most primitive, unconscious mental structure, composed of hereditary instincts and desires. The id is an irrational impulse, only governed by the happiness principle. It lies deep in the personality structure and is the original foundation of the personality structure with the purpose of pursuing instinctive impulses and satisfying repressed desires.The ego is the conscious part of the id. It realizes desires on behalf of the id. At the same time, the ego represents the superego to control and suppress the id, which revises the ego and conforms to the real morality. The ego is between the id and the superego. It is unstable. It works to control the id so as to turn to the superego. The superego is called the unconscious guilt or the ego-ideal. As the name implies, it is something that is against social morality in the subconscious mind. The superego works by reason, so it is the complete suppression of the id, making our actions and thoughts conform to social needs and morals. The superego supervises the activities of the id and directs the ego, which has the following three functions:(1) the suppression of the ids socially unacceptable actions, especially sexual desire and aggression, which are the most socially condemned.(2) To induce the ego to replace lower realistic goals with socially normative goals.(3) To make personal efforts to the ideal of achieving a perfect personality.The id, the ego and the superego influence each other and exert different dominance over individual behaviors at different time.2.3 Influence First, Freud is the first psychologist in the history of psychology to make a comprehensive and profound study of personality. As the first complete theory of personality, his theory of personality structure marks the beginning of western personality psychology, promotes the study of western personality psychology and lays a foundation for the development of human psychology. Second, Freud discovers the dynamic role of instincts in the development of personality, which has enlightening effects on peoples attention to biological factors and understanding of personality development from the perspective of biology. His study of instinct also challenges the traditional and old ideas and enhances the development of science. Third, just as Wang (2014) suggests, Freud provides a method for the analysis of literary works. References Adler, A. (1914). The neurotic constitution. London: Penguin Classics.Dickens, C. (2012). Great expectations. London: Penguin Classics. Erikson, E. H.(1950). Childhood and society. New York: W. W. Norton Company.Freud, S. (1900/1997). The interpretation of dreams. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions.Freud, S. (1921/2012). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. Connecticut: Martino Fine Books.Freud, S. (1923/2010). The ego and the id. Connecticut: Martino Fine Books.Fromm, E. (1941/2014). Escape from freedom. New York: Open Read Media. Gu, S. H. (2014). The self and the other-An interpretation of Great expectations from the perspective of postcolonialism . Retrieved 2019-12-28 from http://www.bjfu.edu.cn/Jerome, M. (2001). Great expectations and self-help: Dickens frowns on smiles. The journal of English and Germanic philology, 100 (4), 537-554.Jung, C. G. (1912). Analysis of the psychology. New York: Open Read Media.Lodge, D. (1987). Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. London: Longman Publishing Group.Luo, J. T. (2016). The analysis of Pip s characteristics in Great expectations. Sichuang: Sichuan University of Arts and Science, 13(6), 499-504.Perera, N. (2012). Dickens and Darwin. University of California. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5kd656gkWang, C. P. (2013). From breakdown to unity: Interpretation of the road with Freuds theory of personality structure. Retrieved from http://www.xytc.edu.cn/Wang, X. W., Xv, L. (2014). Pip's growth in Great expectations. Retrieved from http://www.overseaen.com狄更斯,查尔斯(1860),《远大前程》(Great Expectations), 王科一译。


弗洛伊德,西格蒙得(1923/2014),《自我与本我》(The Ego and the Id), 林尘、张唤民、陈伟奇译。



北京: 人民文学出版社。





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